The downfall of the Spanish Empire continued well into the 19th century, an era of ethnic awakening and revolutions that would bring economic instability and result into the loss of most of the Spanish colonies. Nevertheless the city entered a period of continuous reconstruction, modernization and expansion. The first permanent bridge across the Guadalquivir, the Puente de Isabel II popularly known as the Triana Bridge was established in 1852. In 1859 the Sevilla-Cordoba railway is inaugurated and in 1869 the old city walls were torn down to facilitate the modern growth. In the same time the Feria de Abril, established in 1847  became the largest secular celebration of the city attracting thousands of visitors every year. The arrival of electricity in 1887 would official make Sevilla part of the brave new world.

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The end of the 19th century found many architects in Seville looking to the past for inspiration, contrary to what was happening in Barcelona with Gaudi. The new style would embrace the aesthetic elements of Plateresque, Baroque and Mudejar architecture and produce a unique neo-Andalusian style mainly expressed through the works of Aníbal González for the Iberian-American Exposition. The International Exhibition organised by the city hall in 1929, put Sevilla back in the international map and became the reason for the creation of the important  landmarks of the so-called Regionalist style, like the Plaza de España and the Mudejar Pavillon in Maria Louisa Park, also designed for the important occasion. The style was also followed by José Espiau for many of his renowned buildings such as the luxurious Alfonso XIII Hotel.

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After the horrific days of the Spanish Civil war (1936-1939) and the Second World War, Seville and Spain entered the era of the Franco dictatorship. Under the Franco regime urban development proved to be a disaster. Aside from the historic core around the cathedral, many buildings of historic and architectural value were demolished to make way for utilitarian glass and concrete structures. The Franco era came to an end in 1975

Things started looking up again in the 1980’s when Seville was named capital of the Autonomous district of Andalusia & the Sevilliano Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez became Spain’s Prime Minister as the first socialist to hold the post since the civil war. Born, raised and studied in Sevilla where he joined the local Socialist party before being elected as its leader, a year before the fall of the junta. To date, he remains the longest-serving Prime Minister of Spain (1982 to 1996). The International Expo of 1992,  the world fair celebrating the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus voyage to the New World became a springboard for an unprecedented improvement of the city’s infrastructure. It included a new airport, a new railway station, a speed train connection with the capital, new highways, two new bridges and a new opera.

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Today Seville is the fourth largest city in Spain with a population of more than 700.000 (the wider metropolitan population is about 1.5 million people). The city’s airport handles more than 4 million people each year while its port is the only inland port in Spain handling most Andalusian exports like olive oil, wine, jamón ibérico, fruit, vegetables and cork.  The city is also home to three public universities and three private ones, fifteen outstanding museums and of course several landmark buildings from the past like the  Alcázar, the Casa Consistorial, the Torre del Oro and the Palacio de San Telmo but also landmark buildings like Metropol Parasol that come straight from the future. It is a city filled with grand plazas, lovely parks and gardens that are a unique mixture of European and Arabic cultures with elements from the New World, a world intertwined with the city of Seville for hundreds of years. The parks and plazas are also a great way to cross this amazing city that can prove very helpful if you get lost in one of its many medieval alleys.

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Since 2007 Seville has went through an intensive greening transformation with community bike sharing, an electric tram  and an underground metro, battery charging stations for electric cars. The strategic Plan Seville 2030 that launched by the city council In 2020 will bring the city closer to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Green New Deal promoted by the European Union. It focuses on the creation of more habitable areas with limited circulation of private vehicles, extensive pedestrian zones,  mobility on foot, by bicycle and increasing use of electric cars. It is also proposed to move forward in a joint regulation of housing with tourist use, limiting its activity within the framework of the legislation, reducing the pressure on certain neighbourhoods in the city and encouraging coexistence between neighbours and tourists. Equality and fight against sexist violence, reinforcement of cultural activity in the city’s neighbourhoods, construction of recreational pools, regulation of tourist buses, a fair tourism stamp, a microcredit policy or increased attention to homeless people are other issues included in the agreement.

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Seville’s history is not over. Cities plan their future based on their past and present. Based on the city’s present Seville’s future seems brighter than ever. It’s timeless allure and Andalusian charm can make a short-city-break visitor become so infatuated that, to misquote the city motto, No me ha dejado, Seville never abandons his/her mind.

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Gold and commercial goods started flowing in the city’s port, attracting foreign merchants, craftsmen, bankers and all sorts of people who eagerly converged in the new European Mecca. The city flourished. Architecture, art and literature followed the economic growth fueled by the new colonies transforming Seville into a cultural hive in addition to its role as a commercial hub. Writers like Miguel de Cervantes studied, worked (as a government official) and wrote (poems, songs and probably the first part of his most famous work Don Quixote) in Sevilla , painters like Diego Velasquez who was a born and raised Sevilliano , sculptors like Juan Martínez Montañés, lived and created in the prospering city during the end of the 16th & beginning of 17th century and are still to this days the pride of Seville and Spanish culture as a whole.

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With the gold flowing from the Americas there was no holding back in expenses. Alcazar Palace is remodeled in Renaissance style, the Marchants’ exchange acquires a grand new building next to the cathedral, the grand new Hospital de las Cinco Llagas is inaugurated in the suburb of Macarena, a new building for the customs was provided, the Giralda renovated in Renaissance fad, the Corral de Don Juan Theatre created, the construction of a new City hall in Plaza San Francisco completed, the magnificent Palace of San Telmo built to serve as the seat of the University of Mareantes. A new Imperial city started to take the place of its modest predecessor.

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Three catastrophic floods of the Guadalquivir in 1603, 1626 and 1683 causing severe damages in thousands of buildings, a new outburst of plague that killed up to a quarter of the city’s population in 1649, the constant intermittent warfare of the Habsburg Monarchs and the expenses produced by it, the monetary devaluation that led to commercial disruption and finally the transfer of the Casa de la Contratacion (the government office controlling the commerce with the Americas) to Cadiz in 1717 changed the scenery and ushered in a period of economic decline. The famous Atarazans de Sevilla, the shipyards, stopped working as such, with a great part of them turned into the Hospital de la Caridad and the rest used to store artillery material.

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Despite the massive wealth that had been produced and funneled through the city’s port to the rest of the country during the golden age, Seville squandered its chance to become an industrial and commercial center in and of itself. The city was completely dependent on the trading monopoly but most trade was carried out by foreigners. The merchants of Seville who got rich were more interested in buying titles of nobility and land. Non-productive, prestige oriented investments were bound to have a backlash especially in a time when the whole Spanish Empire was dwindling.

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Despite the fact that Seville had lost its economic vigor and in many ways the people had turned to religion again with Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians, Nazarenes, Hieronymites  and Jesuits, all represented in its numerous convents, the glory days were not too far away. The Age of Enlightenment that was shyly dawning in England and France in beginning of the 18th century was also showing its shining face in Seville with the creation of the Academy of Philosophy and Medicine in 1700, the Academy of Letters in 1751 and the publishing of the first newspaper outside Madrid n 1758. In the same time a pastime that was until then considered an aristocratic hobby would be transformed by the first famous bullfighter in the world at the nearby Andalusian town of Ronda, making it more of a people’s sport. In 1749 a circular bullring that would replace a previous rectangular one started to take its form on the banks of the Guadalquivir River, not far from the Cathedral or the Torre del Oro. The massive Maestranza is today the oldest surviving and the most famous bullring in the world.

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One of the industries that Seville did manage to set up as a consequence of the trade with the Americas was the Fábrica de Tabacos, already up and running scattered in several houses of the San Pedro neighborhood from the beginning of the 17th century when Seville still had the monopoly. In 1758, at a time when it was most needed the new factory of Royal Tobacco started its operation in the second largest building in the whole Spanish Empire, right outside the city walls, where the Puerta de Jerez lies today.  Being outside the city walls led to the simultaneous construction of a defensive moat by engineers of the Royal Army. The tobacco that came from Cuba, Virginia and Brasil was processed by an increasing number of workers that would reach 6000 people and also include women at an age when this was still considered extraordinary in Europe.

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The decisive Battle of Salado in 1340, given by the combined armies of King Alfonso IV of Portugal and King Alfonso XI of Castile against those of sultan Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali of Morocco and Yusuf I of Granada  cemented the Christian dominance in the Iberian peninsula and opened the maritime routes of Gibraltar for trade between Northern & Southern Europe. In essence the victory would pave the way for the golden age of Seville.
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A grim period followed infested by a series of tragedies like the Black Death, that became a sort of endemic disease with repeated outbreaks  in 1348, 1356, 1374, 1383 and 1413. A great earthquake in 1356, a massacre of the Jewish community in 1391 completed the bleak puzzle. The Hospital de Santa Marta established in 1385, would care for the sick while the Church would care for the souls of its flock, which tried to find its answers in religion. It’s no coincidence that in 1389 we have the first ever recorded procession of Corpus Christi. It is also not a coincidence that the decision for the construction of a new Gothic cathedral in the place of the old grand mosque was taken in 1401. The construction would start 30 years later and completed in 1511. The religiosity of the era would be even more accentuated with the establishment and first ever executions of the Spanish Inquisition taking place in 1481 in Seville. In fact it was the Archbishop of Seville Pedro González de Mendoza and a Dominican friar from Seville who had convinced Queen Isabella of the need for its existence during her stay in the city three years earlier. The old castle of Triana that had been occupied by the military Order of of Saint George of Alfama after the Christian take-over would serve as the Headquarters of the Court of the Inquisition.

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In 1492, right after the victory of the Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I of Castile & King Ferdinand II of Aragon against the Emirate of Granada, the freed by the Islamic rule Kingdom of the Iberian peninsula would open its wings at a span that would reach all the way to the undiscovered American continent. A few months after the resounding Christian victory Christopher Columbus sailed off for his first journey across the Atlantic, opening a gateway to the New world that would transform Seville into one of the richest and most important cities in the world.

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In 1503 Seville is granted the monopoly of trade with the Americas by the monarchs. Sevilla’s port becomes the Puerto de Indias. The Casa de la Contratación de Indias in Sevilla becomes the headquarters of the trade with the new world and the archdeacon of the Cathedral of Seville the man responsible for its operation. Columbus died in 1506 after four expeditionary trips that would change the world forever. His remains would be interred in the new Gothic Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See finally completed in that same year. The enormous and awe-inspiring Gothic Cathedral  would capture perfectly the new era of wealth and power of the Spanish crown.

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Alfonso X implemented many of the plans for Seville conceived by his father. One of them was the building of shipyards that would provide him the galleys needed for an expedition in Africa, to attack the Moors at their own ground. The shipyard was already functional in 1253 when it had already produced its first ten galleys. The shipyard would play a great role in the building of the Spanish fleet from the 13th to the 15th century, employing as many as 500 artisans and acting as one of the biggest industrial centers in Europe similar to Venice.
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Alfonso was a polymath and cosmopolitan. He embraced both Muslim and Jewish influence at his court. The sense of cultural interaction was reflected in the remodelling of the Alcazar in a Mudejar style, a clear manifestation of the demographic and cultural continuity of Seville and especially of the artisan class. In the same time the king facilitates the construction of a series of monasteries planned by his father like the Monasterio de San Clemente, the Convent of San Pablo el Real, Santa Clara and San Agustin.

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Alfonso X was deeply loved by his people in Seville who nicknamed him el Sabio the wise. When his eldest son died before the Battle of Écija in the Emirate of Granada in 1275, Alfonso’s second son, Sancho IV claimed the right to inherit the throne but the king favored his grandsons. That led Sancho to an open revolt. In the civil war that followed Seville was one of the three cities that stayed loyal to Alfonso who found refuge in Seville. Sancho decided not to attack the city and leave his father be, secluded and surrounded by his followers there. Shortly before his death in 1284 and in gratitude to the city of Seville, Alfonso X gave the city its emblem, one that follows Seville to this day, a phonetic expression of No me ha dejado «has not abandoned me», in which the wool skein (Madeja) complete the hieroglyph, No-Madeja-Do (No me ha dejado).

Adolescencehttp://bartapassevilla.com/no8do-in-seville/

 

By the year 1225 the Almohad regime of Marakesh had in essence lost the control of Al-Andalus, with rebel Muslim governors teaming up with Christian armies to raid and take control of the cities with Cordoba being the most significant of them. At the end of that year King Sancho II of Portugal ordered his army to conduct raids inside the Andalusian territory that now seemed open for the taking. The army reached Seville without a problem. The frustrated population of Seville raised a patch-up army of their own but they fell easy preys to the swords of the Portuguese who massacred as many as twenty thousand of them outside the city walls.
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During the 1230’s city after city surrendered one after the other to the Christian army of Ferdinand III of Castile. By the end of 1246 the only two Muslim strongholds left in Andalusia, were Seville and Granada. In July 1247 the Castilian army blocked the land routes of the city to the east and north while a fleet of galleys sailed up the Guadalquivir, crossed the chain barrier of the Torre del Oro and destroyed the bridge that connected Seville with Triana, completely isolating it from the rest of the world. The city couldn’t last for long without provisions. On November 23, 1248 the Arab emir of the city, Axataf  surrendered the keys of the city that are still kept in the Cathedral. On 22 December 1248 King Ferdinand III of Castile entered the emptied by Muslims city of Seville, the first Christian king to do so as a ruler in more than 500 years.

The re-population of of the city with Christians was not an easy task especially during the first years. Many incentives were given to those who dared to settle in the conquered territories of the south frontier. Many compromises were also made with the Muslims, who still lived in the rural areas since it was simply too hard to find enough people to leave their land and homes in Castile or León, Asturias and Galicia. The task was easier with Catalans who abounded because they had participated in the conquest as crossbowmen and many of them settled in Seville as craftsmen and merchants. The Reconquista would prove to be a longer than anticipated process. When Ferdinand III died in 1252 he was buried in the former grand mosque of Yaqub Yusuf that had been turned into the new cathedral but had not yet acquired its current form. Every year on November 23 , he is remembered in the so-called Procession of the Sword that takes place inside the Cathedral. The ceremony was established by his son Alfonso X in 1255, as a memory of his father and is still carried out by the standing mayor of the city to this day.

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When the young Abd al-Rahman III took over the Emirate from his grandfather in the year 912, his realm was in the brink of chaos. Several territories and cities had cut ties with Cordoba. Seville was among them. The young prince managed to force the rebellious cities into submission one after the other. When Seville capitulated in the end of 913 he started the construction of a new castle in the place of an old Visigothic Basilica. The Alcazar would become the main residence of the Muslim rulers and would be expanded several times in the future.The few remains of that first palace, can be found today under the Patio de la Monteria.

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Independent from the rest of the Umayyad Empire, the Caliphate of Cordoba, established by Abd al-Rahman III in 929 would last until 1031 when it disintegrated into a cluster of independent Taifas, an Andalusian version of ancient city-states. It was during that time that the suburb of Triana started to form, on the other side of Guadalquivir, around a new castle that would work as the city’s defensive bridgehead outside a new set of walls built around Seville in 1023.

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While Hispalis continued to grow, Italica was gradually deserted after a change in Guadalquivir’s course that rendered its river port useless. After a succession of German invasions in the 5th century the Vandals & then Visigoths would control the Hispalis, until the 8th century.

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In the early 8th century a Muslim army of Arabs and Berbers under the overall command of Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr of the Umayyad caliphate, fought & won the army raised by the Christian Visigoth King Roderic in the Battle of Guadalete. This victory led to the repeated invasion of the Iberian peninsula by a series of Arabic armies, that managed to overwhelm the Visigothic realm.

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Following the conquest of the city, the old Roman name of Hispalis, was changed into the Arabic Ishbiliya which later evolved into the familiar in modern times Sevilla. As the capital of its region the city grew both politically and culturally. It often competed with Córdoba, the capital of Al-Andalus after 711, for the position of the greatest economic and education center of the region. The Ibn Adabbas Mosque (Iglesia del Divino Salvador today) was built between 829 and 830 and would serve as the biggest mosque of the city until the mosque of the Almohad caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf was built in 1182 in what is today the Seville Cathedral.

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The area of modern day Seville was first inhabited around 8th B.C. The first town at the site was then called Ispal and was founded by the Tartessians, indigenous pre-Roman Iberian people, who controlled the areas around the mouth of River Guadalquivir. The Tartessian territory was first pillaged and then dominated by the Carthaginians who became the masters of the Iberian peninsula after the 6th century B.C. Just before the Second Punic War (218 BC) Romans took over Western Mediterranean, a dominance sealed after the military victories of their general Scipio Africanus (210-205 B.C) in Hispania.

After the end of the Second Punic War (c.201 B.C)  Hispania was evacuated by the Punic army. Following their retreat the Roman city of Italica (Birthplace of Roman Emperors Trajan & Hadrian) was founded on a hill about 10 km outside Seville. In the same time the Tartessian town of Ispal was renamed into Hispalis . It was Julius Caesar himself who granted the status of Roman colony to Hispalis, which grew into one of the most prominent cities of Hispania. (Ranked 10th among the most important cities of the Empire *Latin Poet Ausonious). Italica grew as a residential area while Hispalis was the commercial center of the region.

https://antiquetheatro.com/https://antiquetheatro.com/

Located on the pillars of the old Olympic Pavilion in the last exhibition of 1992, this space has 2500 square meters and a great technological and musical equipment, thus managing to be a benchmark in the world of nightlife in the capital of Seville. During the more than 15 years of experience in organizing events, our infrastructures have hosted corporate events, parades, concerts or congresses, all of them guaranteed and accompanied by excellence in service.

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This multidisciplinary space has become a must for Sevillian nightlife. During its sessions from Wednesday to Sunday a very varied audience gathers, among which are numerous well-known faces from the world of cinema, fashion, sports or politics. This space is fortunate to be visited by more than 250,000 people a year, between visitors who want to know the nighttime reference space in Seville and regular customers who know how to choose and who are treated as they deserve on each visit to our disco. These visits give Antique Theatro a unique and cosmopolitan charm. With a highly qualified human team to provide the best service to its clients, Antique Theatro has infinite possibilities. Under a modern and elegant design resulting from a recent comprehensive reform, this space has managed to position itself among the best venues in Spain and works every day to remain among the benchmarks of nightlife venues on the national scene.

https://antiquetheatro.com/https://antiquetheatro.com/

 

https://www.premierginrum.com/https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?vanity=PremierGinRum&set=a.1944819308891762

Enjoy a new experience with every sip at Premier Sherry & Cocktail Bar. A rich menu of classic and signature cocktails  renewed every season. The specialty: Premium glasses. A variety of 250 brands of gins, 300 brands of rums, 200 of whiskeys, 100 brands of vodka, 25 types of tonic, without forgetting the wide variety of brandies and liqueurs. Their bet: turn your visit into a gourmet experience. Consult the bartenders and let them surprise you with a cocktail suitable to your tastes. Premier Sherry Cocktail Bar is a place to enjoy and live.

https://www.facebook.com/PremierGinRum/photosEnjoy a new experience with every sip at Premier Sherry & Cocktail Bar. A rich menu of classic and signature cocktails  renewed every season. The specialty: Premium glasses. A variety of 250 brands of gins, 300 brands of rums, 200 of whiskeys, 100 brands of vodka, 25 types of tonic, without forgetting the wide variety of brandies and liqueurs. Their bet: turn your visit into a gourmet experience. Consult the bartenders and let them surprise you with a cocktail suitable to your tastes. Premier Sherry Cocktail Bar is a place to enjoy and live.